Las interneuronas gigantes colinérgicas y su función en el núcleo accumbens

Nuria Garrido-Vázquez, Jorge Luis Valente Flores-Hernández, María Leonor López-Meraz, Consuelo Morgado-Valle, Luis Beltrán-Parrazal

Resumen


Este análisis de la literatura tiene como propósito ofrecer un resumen de los recientes avances en la comprensión de los factores que influyen en la función de las interneuronas colinérgicas gigantes en el núcleo accumbens. Dada la clasificación del núcleo accumbens como un componente crucial del sistema de recompensa cerebral, resulta fundamental explorar los efectos fisiológicos de la acetilcolina como neuromodulador en esta región. Actualmente, se postula que las interneuronas gigantes colinérgicas locales son la única fuente de acetilcolina en el núcleo accumbens. Estas interneuronas desempeñan funciones cruciales en la modulación de la excitabilidad de las neuronas espinosas medianas influyendo en los niveles de dopamina, en la percepción y apreciación de las recompensas y contribuyen al desarrollo, control y mantenimiento de las adicciones. En consecuencia, pueden surgir estados patológicos cuando se produce una variación en los niveles de acetilcolina. Se revisaron 147 artículos con un rango de búsqueda de diez años para ofrecer una descripción del tema, y obtener una comprensión más profunda del papel que desempeñan las interneuronas en funciones complejas. Además, se incluyó una tabla que detalla varios subtipos de interneuronas para establecer un marco de diferenciación, basado en la literatura existente, considerando sus propiedades anatómicas y electrofisiológicas. A través de esta revisión, identificamos un área donde la investigación aún es escasa, lo que complica el desarrollo de tratamientos efectivos para los trastornos adictivos, las enfermedades neuropsiquiátricas y otras afecciones relacionadas con la motivación y el placer.

Abstract

This review aims to provide a summary of recent progress in comprehending the factors that influence the function of cholinergic giant interneurons within the nucleus accumbens. Given the classification of the nucleus accumbens as a pivotal component of the brain´s reward system, making it essential to examine the physiological effects of acetylcholine as a neuromodulator within this region. Currently, it has been postulated that the sole source of acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens originates from the local cholinergic giant interneurons. These interneurons play crucial roles in modulating the excitability of medium spiny neurons, influencing dopamine levels, the perception and appreciation of rewards, and contributing to the development, control, and maintenance of addictions. Consequently, pathological states may emerge when an alteration in acetylcholine levels occurs. A total of 147 articles were reviewed within a 10-year range to offer a comprehensive description of the subject, aiding us in gaining a deeper understanding of the role interneurons play in complex functions. Additionally, a table featuring various subtypes of interneurons was included to establish a differentiation framework, based on the existing literature, for their anatomical and electrophysiological properties. Through this review, we identified an area where research is still insufficient, hindering the development of effective treatments for addictive disorders, neuropsychiatric diseases, and other conditions related to motivation and pleasure.

Keywords: Nucleus accumbens, cholinergic interneurons, acetylcholine, reward, addiction.


Palabras clave


Núcleo accumbens; interneuronas colinérgicas gigantes; acetilcolina; recompensa; adicción.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.25009/eb.v15i37.2627

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